A1 Journal article (refereed)
Challenge types in gaming validation of video game challenge inventory (CHA) (2020)

Vahlo, Jukka; Karhulahti, Veli-Matti (2020). Challenge types in gaming validation of video game challenge inventory (CHA). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 143, 102473. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2020.102473

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Vahlo, Jukka; Karhulahti, Veli-Matti

Journal or series: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

ISSN: 1071-5819

eISSN: 1095-9300

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 143

Article number: 102473

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2020.102473

Open Access: Open access publication published in a hybrid channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/70869


Challenge is a key motivation for videogame play. But what kind of challenge types videogames include, and which of them players prefer? This article answers the above questions by developing and validating Videogame Challenge Inventory (CHA), a psychometrically sound measurement for investigating players’ challenge preferences in videogames. Based on a comprehensive review of literature, we developed a 38-item version of CHA that was included in a social media user survey (N=813). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a latent structure of five challenge types: Physical, Analytical, Socioemotional, Insight, and Foresight. CHA was amended in another EFA with USA-based survey data (N=536). The second EFA suggested a four-factor structure very similar to the first EFA. A confirmatory factor analysis was executed after an item screening process with a 12-item version of CHA via UK-based survey data (N=1,463). The 12-CHA had an acceptable fit to the data, and the model passed construct, convergent, and discriminant validity tests. Finally, the usefulness of the validated 12-CHA is shown by connecting the discovered challenges and their preferences to known videogame play motivations and to habits of playing specific videogame genres.

Keywords: game research; video games; players (non-music); challenges; motivation (mental objects); psychometrics

Free keywords: challenge; survey; exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis; scale validation; player preferences

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

Last updated on 2020-28-10 at 08:54