A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effects of the Portuguese GraphoGame on Reading, Spelling, and Phonological Awareness in Second Graders Struggling to Read (2020)

Carvalhais, L., Limpo, T., Richardson, U., & Castro, S. L. (2020). Effects of the Portuguese GraphoGame on Reading, Spelling, and Phonological Awareness in Second Graders Struggling to Read. The Journal of Writing Research, 12(1), 9-34. https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2020.12.01.02

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Carvalhais, Lénia; Limpo, Teresa; Richardson, Ulla; Castro, São Luís

Journal or series: The Journal of Writing Research

ISSN: 2030-1006

eISSN: 2294-3307

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 12

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 9-34

Publisher: Universiteit Antwerpen

Publication country: Belgium

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2020.12.01.02

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/71188


The interest in computer-assisted interventions to promote literacy has increased over the years. In this study, we developed the Portuguese version of the GraphoGame Fluent and tested its effects on reading, spelling, and phonological awareness. Second graders struggling to read were randomly assigned to two groups: GraphoGame Fluent group (n = 15), which received a computer-assisted remedial reading intervention, or GraphoGame Math group (n = 15), which received a computer-assisted numeracy intervention. An additional, non-playing group, composed by second graders without reading difficulties, was formed (business-as-usual group, n = 15). Results showed clear benefits of GraphoGame on spelling and phonological awareness. After the intervention and one month later, the GraphoGame Fluent group displayed spelling and phonological awareness skills similar to the business-as-usual group, and above the GraphoGame Math group. Overall, these findings indicate that Portuguese struggling readers benefit from computer-assisted interventions that combine letter-sound correspondences with more complex orthographic patterns.

Keywords: language learning; language development; literacy; phonological awareness; orthography; reading disorders; educational games; computer-assisted learning

Free keywords: GraphoGame

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-17-06 at 11:50