A1 Journal article (refereed)
Hydrogen and Halogen Bond Mediated Coordination Polymers of Chloro-Substituted Pyrazin-2-Amine Copper(I) Bromide Complexes (2020)

Mailman, A., Puttreddy, R., Lahtinen, M., Svahn, N., & Rissanen, K. (2020). Hydrogen and Halogen Bond Mediated Coordination Polymers of Chloro-Substituted Pyrazin-2-Amine Copper(I) Bromide Complexes. Chemistry, 2(3), 700-713. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry2030045

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsMailman, Aaron; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Lahtinen, Manu; Svahn, Noora; Rissanen, Kari

Journal or seriesChemistry


Publication year2020

Publication date05/08/2020


Issue number3

Pages range700-713

PublisherMDPI AG

Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/71366


A new class of six mono- (1; 3-Cl-, 2; 5-Cl-, 3; 6-Cl-) and di-(4; 3,6-Cl, 5; 5,6-Cl-, 6; 3,5-Cl-) chloro-substituted pyrazin-2-amine ligands (1–6) form complexes with copper (I) bromide, to give 1D and 2D coordination polymers through a combination of halogen and hydrogen bonding that were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. These Cu(I) complexes were prepared indirectly from the ligands and CuBr2 via an in situ redox process in moderate to high yields. Four of the pyrazine ligands, 1, 4–6 were found to favor a monodentate mode of coordination to one CuI ion. The absence of a C6-chloro substituent in ligands 1, 2 and 6 supported N1–Cu coordination over the alternative N4–Cu coordination mode evidenced for ligands 4 and 5. These monodentate systems afforded predominantly hydrogen bond (HB) networks containing a catenated (μ3-bromo)-CuI ‘staircase’ motif, with a network of ‘cooperative’ halogen bonds (XB), leading to infinite polymeric structures. Alternatively, ligands 2 and 3 preferred a μ2-N,N’ bridging mode leading to three different polymeric structures. These adopt the (μ3-bromo)-CuI ‘staircase’ motif observed in the monodentate ligands, a unique single (μ2-bromo)-CuI chain, or a discrete Cu2Br2 rhomboid (μ2-bromo)-CuI dimer. Two main HB patterns afforded by self-complimentary dimerization of the amino pyrazines described by the graph set notation R22(8) and non-cyclic intermolecular N–H∙∙∙N’ or N–H∙∙∙Br–Cu leading to infinite polymeric structures are discussed. The cooperative halogen bonding between C–Cl∙∙∙Cl–C and the C–Cl∙∙∙Br–Cu XB contacts are less than the sum of the van der Waals radii of participating atoms, with the latter ranging from 3.4178(14) to 3.582(15) Å. In all cases, the mode of coordination and pyrazine ring substituents affect the pattern of HBs and XBs in these supramolecular structures.

Keywordschemical bondshydrogen bondshalogens

Free keywordshydrogen bond; halogen bond; pyrazine; chloropyrazine; chloropyrazin-2-amine; copper halide

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2020

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 21:05