A1 Journal article (refereed)
Gauge-invariant condensation in the nonequilibrium quark-gluon plasma (2020)

Berges, J., Boguslavski, K., Mace, M., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2020). Gauge-invariant condensation in the nonequilibrium quark-gluon plasma. Physical Review D, 102(3), Article 034014. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.102.034014

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Berges, Jürgen; Boguslavski, Kirill; Mace, Mark; Pawlowski, Jan M.

Journal or series: Physical Review D

ISSN: 2470-0010

eISSN: 2470-0029

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 102

Issue number: 3

Article number: 034014

Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.102.034014

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/71687

Web address of parallel published publication (pre-print): https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.06147


The large density of gluons, which is present shortly after a nuclear collision at very high energies, can lead to the formation of a condensate. We identify a gauge-invariant order parameter for condensation based on elementary nonperturbative excitations of the plasma, which are described by spatial Wilson loops. Using real-time lattice simulations, we demonstrate that a self-similar transport process towards low momenta builds up a macroscopic zero mode. Our findings reveal intriguing similarities to recent discoveries of condensation phenomena out of equilibrium in table-top experiments with ultracold Bose gases.

Keywords: particle physics

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2021-09-08 at 13:02