A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effect of footwear on intramuscular EMG activity of plantar flexor muscles in walking (2020)

Péter, A., Arndt, A., Hegyi, A., Finni, T., Andersson, E., Alkjær, T., Tarassova, O., Rönquist, G., & Cronin, N. (2020). Effect of footwear on intramuscular EMG activity of plantar flexor muscles in walking. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 55, Article 102474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2020.102474

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Péter, Annamária; Arndt, Anton; Hegyi, András; Finni, Taija; Andersson, Eva; Alkjær, Tine; Tarassova,Olga; Rönquist, Gustaf; Cronin, Neil

Journal or series: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology

ISSN: 1050-6411

eISSN: 1873-5711

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 55

Article number: 102474

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2020.102474

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/71912


One of the purposes of footwear is to assist locomotion, but some footwear types seem to restrict natural foot motion, which may affect the contribution of ankle plantar flexor muscles to propulsion. This study examined the effects of different footwear conditions on the activity of ankle plantar flexors during walking. Ten healthy habitually shod individuals walked overground in shoes, barefoot and in flip-flops while fine-wire electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), and medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles. EMG signals were peak-normalised and analysed in the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). We found highly individual EMG patterns. Although walking with shoes required higher muscle activity for propulsion than walking barefoot or with flip-flops in most participants, this did not result in statistically significant differences in EMG amplitude between footwear conditions in any muscle (p>0.05). Time to peak activity showed the lowest coefficient of variation in shod walking (3.5, 7.0, 8.0 and 3.4 for FHL, SOL, MG and LG, respectively). Future studies should clarify the sources and consequences of individual EMG responses to different footwear.

Keywords: walking (motion); footwear; legs; feet; muscle activity; electromyography

Free keywords: locomotion; gait; foot; lower leg; fine-wire electromyography

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2021-09-08 at 18:02