A4 Article in conference proceedings
Hybrid Warfare in Society's Information Environment : An Empirical Analysis Using the Grounded Theory (2020)


Mustonen-Ollila, Erja; Lehto, Martti J.; Heikkonen, Jukka (2020). Hybrid Warfare in Society's Information Environment : An Empirical Analysis Using the Grounded Theory. In Eze, Thaddeus; Speakman, Lee; Onwubiko, Cyril (Eds.) ECCWS 2020 : Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Proceedings of the European conference on information warfare and security. Academic Conferences International, 258-267. DOI: 10.34190/EWS.20.006


JYU authors or editors


Publication details

All authors or editors: Mustonen-Ollila, Erja; Lehto, Martti J.; Heikkonen, Jukka

Parent publication: ECCWS 2020 : Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security

Parent publication editors: Eze, Thaddeus; Speakman, Lee; Onwubiko, Cyril

Conference:

European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security

Place and date of conference: University of Chester, UK (virtual conference), 25-26.6.2020

ISBN: 978-1-912764-61-7

eISBN: 978-1-912764-62-4

Journal or series: Proceedings of the European conference on information warfare and security

ISSN: 2048-8602

eISSN: 2048-8610

Publication year: 2020

Pages range: 258-267

Publisher: Academic Conferences International

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: http://doi.org/10.34190/EWS.20.006

Open Access: Publication channel is not openly available


Abstract

This paper investigates hybrid warfare by analysing its dimensions, that is, hybrid influencing, information warfare, kinetic warfare and cyber warfare, in a society’s information environment. The Grounded Theory approach was used to collect and analyse the data. Evidence of four thematic categories emerged, and each category was broken down into multiple items, derived from data and validated by past studies. The number of discovered item observations was 119, that is, 1–20 multiple item categories per thematic category, forming a total of 44 item categories. In this study, four thematic categories, their item categories and relationships between thematic categories defined the concept of hybrid warfare. Propositions regarding the thematic categories were then made on the basis of the inter-relationships between them. Seven higher-level abstractions of statements were found in the conceptual framework. Finally, six conclusions emerged from this study. First, modifying a society’s IE for a foreign state’s purposes is a coordinated political goal. Second, external pressure from foreign states is constant and seeks new forms of influencing. Third, a strategic goal exists to weaken society’s IE through frequent cyber operations, cyber attacks, fake information, social influence, political influence and psychological influence in order to prevent the progress of the society. Fourth, the goal of military manoeuvres and constant exercises with new military weapons near borders is to threaten the society. Fifth, foreign actors use different types of warfare to prevent the society’s decision-making. Sixth, hybrid influencing, information warfare, kinetic warfare and cyber warfare all overlap with each other in the society’s IE.


Keywords: hybrid warfare; information warfare; influencing; disinformation; cyberwarfare; concept analysis; grounded theory

Free keywords: information environment; hybrid influencing


Contributing organizations


Ministry reporting: Yes

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1


Last updated on 2020-05-10 at 15:53