A4 Article in conference proceedings
Actors in Society's Hybrid Information Environment : Grounded Theory Analysis (2020)


Mustonen-Ollila, Erja; Lehto, Martti J.; Heikkonen, Jukka (2020). Actors in Society's Hybrid Information Environment : Grounded Theory Analysis. In Eze, Thaddeus; Speakman, Lee; Onwubiko, Cyril (Eds.) ECCWS 2020 : Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Proceedings of the European conference on information warfare and security. Academic Conferences International, 268-277. DOI: 10.34190/EWS.20.121


JYU authors or editors


Publication details

All authors or editors: Mustonen-Ollila, Erja; Lehto, Martti J.; Heikkonen, Jukka

Parent publication: ECCWS 2020 : Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security

Parent publication editors: Eze, Thaddeus; Speakman, Lee; Onwubiko, Cyril

Conference:

European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security

Place and date of conference: University of Chester, UK (virtual conference), 25-26.6.2020

ISBN: 978-1-912764-61-7

eISBN: 978-1-912764-62-4

Journal or series: Proceedings of the European conference on information warfare and security

ISSN: 2048-8602

eISSN: 2048-8610

Publication year: 2020

Pages range: 268-277

Publisher: Academic Conferences International

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: http://doi.org/10.34190/EWS.20.121

Open Access: Publication channel is not openly available


Abstract

This paper outlines the actors carrying out information and cyber operations and cyber attacks in society’s hybrid information environment. It conceptualizes these actors using content analysis, as well as a qualitative and Grounded Theory approach by studying primary open sources, such as past scientific articles, government reports, theses, public news, non-scientific (popular) studies, books, websites, TV programmes, blogs, social media outlets, and personal observations of contemporary daily events. The total sum of actor observations was 189 among where information operations, cyber operations and cyber attacks were carried out by 49, 22, and 20 different actors, respectively. The discovered 91 actors are verified and validated. The conceptual model of these actors was developed using past studies and the Grounded Theory approach. This conceptual model acted as a theory on the actors carrying out these operations and attacks in society’s hybrid information environment, and is the scientific result of this study. The practical, and managerial result is the revelation of who these actors are. Being aware of which actors are capable of such operations and attacks enables better defence of society’s hybrid information environment and improves its security.


Keywords: hybrid warfare; information warfare; cyberwarfare; cyber attacks; cyber security; agents (actors); grounded theory

Free keywords: hybrid information environment; actor; information operation; cyber operation; cyber attack, Grounded Theory


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Ministry reporting: Yes

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1


Last updated on 2020-05-10 at 16:05