G5 Doctoral dissertation (article)
Different processes towards inclusion : a cross-cultural investigation of teachers' self-efficacy in Japan and Finland (2020)

Yada, A. (2020). Different processes towards inclusion : a cross-cultural investigation of teachers' self-efficacy in Japan and Finland [Doctoral dissertation]. Jyväskylän yliopisto. JYU dissertations, 194. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-8073-3

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Yada, Akie

eISBN: 978-951-39-8073-3

Journal or series: JYU dissertations

eISSN: 2489-9003

Publication year: 2020

Number in series: 194

Number of pages in the book: 1 verkkoaineisto (75 sivua, 33 sivua useina numerointijaksoina)

Publisher: Jyväskylän yliopisto

Place of Publication: Jyväskylä

Publication country: Finland

Publication language: English

Persistent website address: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-8073-3

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel


This dissertation aims to examine inclusive education from teachers’ points of view in Japan and Finland. Specifically, it has three aims: a) to examine how teachers’ self-efficacy for inclusive practices relates to teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education; b) to assess how teachers’ demographic variables influence their self-efficacy and attitudes; and c) to identify sources of teachers’ self-efficacy that might affect their efficacy beliefs in implementing inclusive education. Data were obtained from a total of 620 Japanese and 1995 Finnish teachers through a survey questionnaire and analysed using statistical methods. The analyses revealed that teachers’ self-efficacy for inclusive practices affected their attitudes positively in both Japan and Finland. In addition, teachers’ experience in teaching students with disabilities had a positive effect on their self-efficacy and attitudes in both countries. However, there were some differences between Japan and Finland. First, teachers’ teaching careers predicted their self-efficacy only in Japan; elder teachers were more confident in Japan, but there was no difference between novice and experienced teachers in Finland. Second, the teachers’ teaching careers had a negative effect on their attitudes only in Finland; elder Finnish teachers held more negative attitudes towards inclusive education. Finally, the amount of inclusive education training affected teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes positively only in Finland. In regard to the four sources of self-efficacy proposed by Bandura (1997), mastery experience had the strongest independent positive effect on self-efficacy in the two countries. Verbal persuasion made a small but significant contribution to self-efficacy in both countries; however, the effect was positive in Finland but negative in Japan. Further, the four sources of self-efficacy explained 54% of variance in teachers’ self-efficacy in the Finnish sample but 15% in the Japanese sample, indicating there may be other sources that influence self-efficacy in Japan. Overall, the findings of this thesis confirm that teachers’ self-efficacy for inclusive practices was positively associated with their attitudes. Moreover, how teachers’ demographic variables and their sources of self-efficacy predicted their efficacy beliefs differ by country, which emphasises the importance of studying inclusive education within cross-cultural frameworks, taking in to account cultural, historical, political and societal contexts.

Keywords: inclusion; teachers; teaching and instruction; students; school children; pupils with special needs; attitudes; self image; self-esteem; self-confidence; trust; complicity; disabled people; special education (teaching); interculturalism

Free keywords: inclusive education; teacher; self-efficacy; attitudes; Japan; Finland

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

Last updated on 2021-07-07 at 21:34