A1 Journal article (refereed)
The Potentials of Tangible Technologies for Learning Linear Equations (2020)

Lehtonen, D., Machado, L., Joutsenlahti, J., & Perkkilä, P. (2020). The Potentials of Tangible Technologies for Learning Linear Equations. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 4(4), Article 77. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti4040077

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Lehtonen, Daranee; Machado, Lucas; Joutsenlahti, Jorma; Perkkilä, Päivi

Journal or series: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction

eISSN: 2414-4088

Publication year: 2020

Publication date: 23/10/2020

Volume: 4

Issue number: 4

Article number: 77

Publisher: MDPI AG

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/mti4040077

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/72342

Additional information: Correction: Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6010005


angible technologies provide interactive links between the physical and digital worlds, thereby merging the benefits of physical and virtual manipulatives. To explore the potentials of tangible technologies for learning linear equations, a tangible manipulative (TM) was designed and developed. A prototype of the initial TM was implemented and evaluated using mixed methods (i.e., classroom interventions, paper-based tests, thinking aloud sessions, questionnaires, and interviews) in real classroom settings. Six teachers, 24 primary school students, and 65 lower secondary school students participated in the exploratory study. The quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed that the initial TM supported student learning at various levels and had a positive impact on their learning achievement. Moreover, its overall usability was also accepted. Some minor improvements with regard to its pedagogy and usability could be implemented. These findings indicate that the initial TM is likely to be beneficial for linear equation learning in pre-primary to lower secondary schools and be usable in mathematics classrooms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: educational technology; educational technology; user interfaces; multimodality; mathematics; equations; primary and lower secondary education

Free keywords: manipulatives; multimodality; tangible user interface; educational technology; mathematics learning; linear equations; basic education

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 14:39