A1 Journal article (refereed)
The Potentials of Tangible Technologies for Learning Linear Equations (2020)

Lehtonen, D., Machado, L., Joutsenlahti, J., & Perkkilä, P. (2020). The Potentials of Tangible Technologies for Learning Linear Equations. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 4(4), Article 77. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti4040077

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLehtonen, Daranee; Machado, Lucas; Joutsenlahti, Jorma; Perkkilä, Päivi

Journal or seriesMultimodal Technologies and Interaction


Publication year2020

Publication date23/10/2020


Issue number4

Article number77

PublisherMDPI AG

Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/72342

Additional informationCorrection: Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6010005


angible technologies provide interactive links between the physical and digital worlds, thereby merging the benefits of physical and virtual manipulatives. To explore the potentials of tangible technologies for learning linear equations, a tangible manipulative (TM) was designed and developed. A prototype of the initial TM was implemented and evaluated using mixed methods (i.e., classroom interventions, paper-based tests, thinking aloud sessions, questionnaires, and interviews) in real classroom settings. Six teachers, 24 primary school students, and 65 lower secondary school students participated in the exploratory study. The quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed that the initial TM supported student learning at various levels and had a positive impact on their learning achievement. Moreover, its overall usability was also accepted. Some minor improvements with regard to its pedagogy and usability could be implemented. These findings indicate that the initial TM is likely to be beneficial for linear equation learning in pre-primary to lower secondary schools and be usable in mathematics classrooms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywordseducational technologyeducational technologyuser interfacesmultimodalitymathematicsequationsprimary and lower secondary education

Free keywordsmanipulatives; multimodality; tangible user interface; educational technology; mathematics learning; linear equations; basic education

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2020

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 20:46