A1 Journal article (refereed)
Aiming strategy affects performance-related factors in biathlon standing shooting (2021)

Köykkä, M., Ihalainen, S., Linnamo, V., Ruotsalainen, K., Häkkinen, K., & Laaksonen, M. S. (2021). Aiming strategy affects performance-related factors in biathlon standing shooting. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 31(3), 573-585. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13864

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Köykkä, Miika; Ihalainen, Simo; Linnamo, Vesa; Ruotsalainen, Keijo; Häkkinen, Keijo; Laaksonen, Marko S.

Journal or series: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

ISSN: 0905-7188

eISSN: 1600-0838

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 28/10/2020

Volume: 31

Issue number: 3

Pages range: 573-585

Publisher: Wiley

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13864

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/72450


This study focused on investigating differences in shooting performance and performance related factors between two different aiming strategies (HOLD, low radial velocity during the approach 0.4‐0.2 seconds before triggering, and TIMING, high radial velocity) in biathlon standing shooting. 23 biathletes fired 8x5 standing shots at rest (REST) and 2x5 shots during a race simulation (RACE). Shooting performance (hit point distance from the center of the target), aiming point trajectory and postural balance were measured from each shot. Shooting performance was similar both at REST (HOLD 33±5 mm vs TIMING 38±8 mm, p=0.111) and in RACE (40±11 mm vs 47±12 mm, p=0.194). Better shooting performance was related to smaller distance of the aiming point mean location (REST r=0.93, p<0.001, RACE r=0.72, p=0.018) and higher time spent within ⅔ of the distance of the hit area edge from the center 0.6‐0.0 seconds before triggering (REST r=‐0.88, p=0.001, RACE r=‐0.73, p=0.016) in HOLD, and to lower aiming point total velocity 0.6‐0.0 seconds before triggering (REST r=0.77, p=0.009, RACE r=0.88, p=0.001) and less aiming point movement 0.2‐0.0 seconds before triggering (REST r=0.82, p=0.003, RACE r=0.72, p=0.012) in TIMING. Postural balance was related to shooting performance at REST in both groups and in RACE in TIMING. Biathletes using the hold strategy should focus on stabilizing the aiming point before triggering and aiming at the center, whereas biathletes using the timing strategy benefit of decreasing the total velocity during the final approach as well as minimizing the aiming point movement right before triggering.

Keywords: biathlon; biomechanics; coaching; optoelectronics; balance; shooting; technique

Free keywords: biathlon; biomechanics; coaching; optoelectronics; postural balance; rifle shooting; technique

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

Preliminary JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2022-17-06 at 10:25