A1 Journal article (refereed)
The demand for IPR services - to use or not to use a professional representative? (2021)

Heikkilä, J. (2021). The demand for IPR services - to use or not to use a professional representative?. International Journal of Intellectual Property Management, 11(3), 316-324. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJIPM.2020.10033293

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHeikkilä, Jussi

Journal or seriesInternational Journal of Intellectual Property Management



Publication year2021


Issue number3

Pages range316-324

PublisherInderscience Publishers

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77607


We analysed the use of professional representative services and related outcomes in patent, utility model, design right and trademark filings. We found that: 1) there is a positive association between the use of a professional representative and the likelihood of grant or registration; 2) the demand for professional intellectual property rights (IPR) services is heterogeneous between IPR types: applicants are most likely to hire professional representatives (IPR agents and attorneys) for patents, followed by utility models, design rights and trademarks; 3) individual applicants are less likely to use professional representatives compared to firm applicants.

Keywordspatentstrademarksdesign rightsutility modelsrepresentatives

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 19:46