A1 Journal article (refereed)
Development of reading and arithmetic skills across Grades 1 to 4 in two groups of children receiving part-time special education (2021)

Virinkoski, R., Eklund, K., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Holopainen, L., & Aro, M. (2021). Development of reading and arithmetic skills across Grades 1 to 4 in two groups of children receiving part-time special education. Learning and Individual Differences, 85, 101956. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2020.101956

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Virinkoski, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Holopainen, Leena; Aro, Mikko

Journal or series: Learning and Individual Differences

ISSN: 1041-6080

eISSN: 1873-3425

Publication year: 2021

Volume: 85

Pages range: 101956

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: Netherlands

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2020.101956

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/79669


This study investigated why some Finnish students receive part-time special education in Grade 1, duration of that support, and its relation to student reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic fluency development. The participants included two groups from Grade 1 receiving part-time special education (1–2 years vs. 3–4 years) and a control group comprising the remaining participants from the study. Teachers identified reading and expressive language difficulties as the main reasons for part-time special education in Grade 1. By Grade 4, students who received support until Grade 1 or 2 caught up the level of the control group especially in reading fluency. Students who had received support until Grade 3 or 4 exhibited more persistent and overlapping difficulties with attention, receptive language, memory, and motivation. Additionally, by Grade 4, differences from the control group remained statistically significant for all three skills. Implications for enhancing special education interventions for students with persistent and overlapping learning difficulties are discussed.

Keywords: learning difficulties; reading; fluency; mathematical skills; language development; language disorders; reading disorders; special education (teaching); forms of support

Free keywords: part-time special education; reading fluency; reading comprehension; arithmetic fluency; overlapping difficulties

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2023-03-10 at 11:55