A1 Journal article (refereed)
Poliittisten toimijoiden kokema vihapuhe sukupuolittuneena poliittisena väkivaltana (2020)
Gendered political violence : hate speech experienced by political actors

Saresma, T., Pöyhtäri, R., Kosonen, H., Haara, P., & Knuutila, A. (2020). Poliittisten toimijoiden kokema vihapuhe sukupuolittuneena poliittisena väkivaltana. Sukupuolentutkimus, 33(4), 18-38.

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsSaresma, Tuija; Pöyhtäri, Reeta; Kosonen, Heidi; Haara, Paula; Knuutila, Aleksi

Journal or seriesSukupuolentutkimus


Publication year2020


Issue number4

Pages range18-38

PublisherSukupuolentutkimuksen seura – Sällskapet för genusforskning ry

Publication countryFinland

Publication languageFinnish

Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/73781

Additional informationArtikkeli liittyy "Viha vallassa : vihapuheen vaikutukset yhteiskunnalliseen päätöksentekoon" -selvitykseen. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-287-786-4


In our article, we discuss hate speech targeted at politicians as a gendered phenomenon that involves a wide range of emotions and affects. Hate speech impacts its targets in many ways and evokes different emotions and feelings. We define hat speech as threatening, contemptuous, or discriminatory speech directed at an actual or alleged characteristic of a particular group. We explore hate speech in a circumscribed way as verbal political violence targeted at political actors. It counts as violence because it impacts its targets the same way as physical violence does. The definition extends the concept of political violence to cover symbolic harms. Hate speech as political violence is motivated by the belonging of its targets to a certain group of people, or their political orientation, and its purpose is to harm, silence its targets, and cause them to give up political decision-making. We analyze political violence in the light of our study “The impact of hate speech on public decision-making”, published in 2019. The study was directed at municipal decision-makers and parliamentarians. We present the quantitative results of the survey on hate speech and analyze qualitatively what expressions are interpreted as violence in the open-ended responses of the survey and what kinds of emotions and affects are addressed in them. In our article, we ask how the respondents make sense of hate speech, what affects it revolves around, and what kind or affective reactions it causes. The verbal violence that politicians face as intersectional: Such hate speech that seeks to silence its targets is particularly directed at women, as well as gender and sexual minorities, linguistic minorities, and ethnic minorities. The focus of this article is on the gendered nature of hate speech and its manifestation as political violence that threatens the freedom of speech.

Keywordsviolence (activity)political violencepoliticianshate speechintimidationgendergenderingemotionsexperiences (knowledge)intersectionality

Free keywordsaffect; emotions; gendered violence; hate speech; intersectionality; political violence

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2020

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 23:30