A1 Journal article (refereed)
Retirement age and type as predictors of frailty : a retrospective cohort study of older businessmen (2020)

Haapanen, M. J., von Bonsdorff, M. B., Perttilä, N. M., Törmäkangas, T., von Bonsdorff, M. E., Strandberg, A. Y., & Strandberg, T. E. (2020). Retirement age and type as predictors of frailty : a retrospective cohort study of older businessmen. BMJ Open, 10(12), Article e037722. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037722

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHaapanen, Markus J.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Perttilä, Niko M.; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Strandberg, Arto Y.; Strandberg, Timo E.

Journal or seriesBMJ Open



Publication year2020

Publication date01/01/2020


Issue number12

Article numbere037722

PublisherBMJ Publishing Group Ltd

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/73733


Objectives: To study the association between retirement characteristics and frailty in a homogenous population of former business executives.

Design: Cross-sectional cohort study using data from the Helsinki Businessmen Study.

Setting: Helsinki, Finland.

Participants: 1324 Caucasian men, born in 1919-1934, who had worked as business executives and managers and of whom 95.9% had retired by the year 2000. Questions on age at and type of retirement, lifestyle and chronic conditions were embedded in questionnaires.

Primary and secondary outcome measures: Frailty assessed according to a modified phenotype definition at mean age 73.3 years.

Results: Mean age at retirement was 61.3 years (SD 4.3) and 37.1% had retired due to old age. The prevalence of frailty was lowest among men retiring at ages 66-67 years but increased among those who worked up to age 70 years or older. Compared with men who retired before age 55 years, those retiring at ages 58-69 years were at decreased risk of frailty in old age relative to non-frailty (adjusted ORs 0.07-0.29, p<0.05). Compared with men who transitioned into old age retirement, those who retired due to disability were at increased risk of prefrailty (adjusted OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.32) and frailty (adjusted OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.29), relative to non-frailty.

Conclusion: Exiting working life early and continuing to be occupationally active until age 70 years and older were both associated with increased risk of frailty among the men. Promotion of longer work careers could, however, promote healthier ageing, as the lowest prevalence of frailty was observed in former business executives who retired at ages 66-67 years.

Keywordsolder peopleageingfrailty syndromeretirementretirement agecohort study

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2020

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 12:44