A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effect of Biomechanical Footwear on upper and lower leg muscle activity in comparison with knee brace and normal walking (2021)

Ylinen, J., Pennanen, A., Weir, A., Häkkinen, A., & Multanen, J. (2021). Effect of Biomechanical Footwear on upper and lower leg muscle activity in comparison with knee brace and normal walking. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 57, Article 102528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2021.102528

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Ylinen, Jari; Pennanen, Antti; Weir, Adam; Häkkinen, Arja; Multanen, Juhani

Journal or series: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology

ISSN: 1050-6411

eISSN: 1873-5711

Publication year: 2021

Volume: 57

Article number: 102528

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2021.102528

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/74433


To evaluate the activity of knee stabilizing muscles while using custom-made biomechanical footwear (BF) and to compare it when walking barefoot and with a knee brace (Unloader®).

Seventeen healthy working-aged (mean age: 28 years; standard deviation: 8 years) individuals participated. The knee brace was worn on the right knee and BF in both legs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) data was recorded bilaterally from vastus medialis (VM), semitendinosus (ST), tibialis anterior (TA) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles during walking, and repeated-measures ANOVA with a post-hoc t-test was used to determine differences between the different walking modalities (barefoot, brace and BF).

Averaged sEMG was significantly higher when walking with BF than barefoot or knee brace in ST and LG muscles. It was significantly lower when walking with the brace compared to barefoot in the right and left ST, LG and TA muscles. Analysis of the ensemble-averaged sEMG profiles showed earlier activation of TA muscles when walking with BF compared to other walking modalities.

BF produced greater activation in evaluated lower leg muscles compared to barefoot walking. Thus BF may have an exercise effect in rehabilitation and further studies about its effectiveness are warranted.

Keywords: biomechanics; walking (motion); footwear; knees; electromyography; arthrosis; exercise therapy

Free keywords: biomechanical device; footwear; knee brace; surface electromyography; knee osteoarthritis; exercise therapy; gait analysis

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-17-06 at 10:19