A1 Journal article (refereed)
Brain responses of dysphoric and control participants during a self‐esteem implicit association test (2021)

Lou, Y., Lei, Y., Astikainen, P., Peng, W., Otieno, S., & Leppänen, P. H. T. (2021). Brain responses of dysphoric and control participants during a self‐esteem implicit association test. Psychophysiology, 58(4), Article e13768. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13768

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLou, Yixue; Lei, Yi; Astikainen, Piia; Peng, Weiwei; Otieno, Suzanne; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

Journal or seriesPsychophysiology



Publication year2021

Publication date04/02/2021


Issue number4

Article numbere13768


Publication countryUnited States

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/74087


Previous studies have reported lowered implicit self‐esteem at the behavioral level among depressed individuals. However, brain responses related to the lowered implicit self‐esteem have not been investigated in people with depression. Here, event‐related potentials were measured in 28 dysphoric participants (individuals with elevated amounts of depressive symptoms) and 30 control participants during performance of an implicit association task (IAT) suggested to reflect implicit self‐esteem. Despite equivalent behavioral performance, differences in brain responses were observed between the dysphoric and the control groups in late positive component (LPC) within 400–1,000 ms poststimulus latency. For the dysphoric group, self‐negativity mapping stimuli (me with negative word pairing and not‐me with positive word pairing) induced significantly larger LPC amplitude as compared to self‐positivity mapping stimuli (me with positive pairing and not‐me with negative pairing), whereas the control group showed the opposite pattern. These results suggest a more efficient categorization toward implicit self‐is‐negative association, possibly reflecting lower implicit self‐esteem among the dysphoric participants, in comparison to the controls. These results demonstrate the need for further investigation into the functional significance of LPC modulation during IAT and determination of whether LPC can be used as a neural marker of depressive‐related implicit self‐esteem.

Keywordsdepression (mental disorders)mental ill-healthself-esteembrain researchEEG

Free keywordsdepressive symptoms; dysphoria; event-related potentials (ERPs); implicit association test (IAT); implicit self-esteem; late positive component (LPC)

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 20:05