A1 Journal article (refereed)
Áreas protegidas e urbanização : o caso da APA da ilha do Combú, Belém-PA (2020)
Protected areas and urbanization : the case of Combú Island, Belém-PA

Virtanen, P. (2020). Áreas protegidas e urbanização : o caso da APA da ilha do Combú, Belém-PA. Cadernos de Estudos Sociais, 35(2). https://doi.org/10.33148/DOI:10.33148/CES25954091V35n2(2020)1890

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Virtanen, Pekka

Journal or series: Cadernos de Estudos Sociais

ISSN: 0102-4248

eISSN: 2595-4091

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 35

Issue number: 2

Publisher: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco

Publication country: Brazil

Publication language: Portuguese

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33148/DOI:10.33148/CES25954091V35n2(2020)1890

Persistent website address: https://periodicos.fundaj.gov.br/CAD/article/view/1890

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/74313


The paper seeks to answer two questions: what is the influence of the geographical location of the island of Combú in the metropolitan area of Belém, PA, and whether its current status as an Area of Environmental Protection (APA) has any impact on biodiversity and socioeconomic development? Similar to other riverside areas in the Amazon, Combú has a long history of involvement in the trade of extractive products. However, its geographical proximity to Belém and consequent access to markets made producers less dependent on intermediaries, while the ownership of resources was based on independent family units. Therefore, the dominant mode of caboclo extractivism, together with limited access to motorized transport to reach Belém until the 1990s, guaranteed a relatively high level of environmental conservation. The declaration of APA in 1997 served to maintain this situation against increasing pressure from urbanization. The results show that the impact of the protected status introduced externally has been somewhat contradictory. Although it has facilitated access to some modern facilities, such as electricity, the island still suffers from a lack of important services, such as drinking water and waste treatment. Although the APA had a limited effect on the conservation of biodiversity, the high demand for açaí allowed the continuity of relatively sustainable extractive production, although with a tendency towards monoculture. The main threats come from uncontrolled leisure tourism and the rapid increase in motorized traffic -both due to the proximity of Belém.

Keywords: protected areas; nature reserves; local communities; natural products; non-timber forest products; berries; urbanisation; economic development; progress of a society

Free keywords: Amazon; extractivism; protected areas; Açaí; socio-economic development

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 0

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 13:04