A1 Journal article (refereed)
Men will be Men? : Masculinities on display in the Facebook communication practices of Pakistani men (2021)

Salam, R. (2021). Men will be Men? : Masculinities on display in the Facebook communication practices of Pakistani men. Norma : International Journal for Masculinity Studies, 16(1), 38-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/18902138.2021.1875640

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Salam, Rauha

Journal or series: Norma : International Journal for Masculinity Studies

ISSN: 1890-2138

eISSN: 1890-2146

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 22/01/2021

Volume: 16

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 38-56

Publisher: Routledge; The Nordic Association for Research on Men and Masculinities

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/18902138.2021.1875640

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/74354


In the past decade, the popularization of social media in Pakistan has greatly influenced the way in which people communicate and interact with each other. The rapidly evolving nature of online social media communication in the country when viewed against the backdrop of the country’s socio-cultural characteristics and religion is particularly significant. Facebook, being the prime social media platform in Pakistan has been revolutionary and liberating because while acting as a medium of communication, which transgresses the traditional manner of gendered social interactions, it has at the same time enabled the users to perpetuate and reinforce the existing gender ideology. As a result, Facebook in Pakistan has evolved into a space where individuals construct gender identities discursively. Using Multimodal Discourse Analysis, I investigate the ways in which Pakistani men multimodally construct their gender identities on Facebook. I show how Pakistani men are not only upholding the existing socio-cultural norms and discourse but also there are subtle signs of digression from the established models of masculinity.

Keywords: gender roles; gender identity; men; masculinity; social norms; patriarchy; social media; Facebook; discourse analysis

Free keywords: Facebook; Multimodal discourse analysis; Pakistan; men

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 15:46