A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effects of Physical and Cognitive Training on Gait Speed and Cognition in Older Adults : A Randomized Controlled Trial (2021)

Sipilä, S., Tirkkonen, A., Savikangas, T., Hänninen, T., Laukkanen, P., Alen, M., Fielding, R. A., Kivipelto, M., Kulmala, J., Rantanen, T., Sihvonen, S. E., Sillanpää, E., Stigsdotter Neely, A., & Törmäkangas, T. (2021). Effects of Physical and Cognitive Training on Gait Speed and Cognition in Older Adults : A Randomized Controlled Trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 31(7), 1518-1533. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13960

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Sipilä, Sarianna; Tirkkonen, Anna; Savikangas, Tiina; Hänninen, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Pia; Alen, Markku; Fielding, Roger A.; Kivipelto, Miia; Kulmala, Jenni; Rantanen, Taina; et al.

Journal or series: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

ISSN: 0905-7188

eISSN: 1600-0838

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 27/03/2021

Volume: 31

Issue number: 7

Pages range: 1518-1533

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13960

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77086


Gait speed is a measure of health and functioning. Physical and cognitive determinants of gait are amenable to interventions, but best practices remain unclear. We investigated the effects of a 12‐month physical and cognitive training (PTCT) on gait speed, dual‐task cost in gait speed, and executive functions (EFs) compared to physical training (PT) (ISRCTN52388040). Community‐dwelling older adults, who did not meet physical activity recommendations, were recruited (n=314). PT included supervised walking/balance (once weekly) and resistance/balance training (once weekly), home exercises (2‐3 times weekly) and moderate aerobic activity 150 minutes/week in bouts of >10 minutes. PTCT included the PT and computer training (CT) on EFs 15‐20 minutes, 3‐4 times weekly. The primary outcome was gait speed. Secondary outcomes were 6‐minute walking distance, dual‐task cost in gait speed, and EF (Stroop and Trail Making B‐A). The trial was completed by 93% of the participants (age 74.5 [SD3.8] years; 60% women). Mean adherence to supervised sessions was 59‐72% in PT and 62‐77% in PTCT. Home exercises and CT were performed on average 1.9 times/week. Weekly minutes spent in aerobic activities were 188 (median 169) in PT and 207 (median 180) in PTCT.

No significant interactions were observed for gait speed (PTCT‐PT, 0.02; 95%CI ‐0.03, 0.08), walking distance (‐3.8; ‐16.9, 9.3) or dual‐task cost (‐0.22; ‐1.74, 1.30). Stroop improvement was greater after PTCT than PT (‐6.9; ‐13.0, ‐0.8). Complementing physical training with EFs training is not essential for promotion of gait speed. For EF’s, complementing physical training with targeted cognitive training provides additional benefit.

Keywords: older people; ageing; physical functioning; executive functions (psychology); physical training; training; walking (motion)

Free keywords: aging; community‐dwelling; executive functions; exercise; walking

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Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2023-03-10 at 12:04