A1 Journal article (refereed)
Validity and reliability of the motivation for physical activity (RM4-FM) questionnaire (2021)

Uimonen, M., Repo, J. P., Grönroos, K., Häkkinen, A., & Walker, S. (2021). Validity and reliability of the motivation for physical activity (RM4-FM) questionnaire. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 17(2), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.2142194.097

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Uimonen, Mikko; Repo, Jussi P.; Grönroos, Kiira; Häkkinen, Arja; Walker, Simon

Journal or series: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation

ISSN: 2288-176X

eISSN: 2288-1778

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 27/04/2021

Volume: 17

Issue number: 2

Pages range: 103-111

Publisher: Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation

Publication country: Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.2142194.097

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/75331


There is a lack of validated instruments measuring motivation for physical activity (RM4-FM) in the Finnish language. The study examined the translated RM4-FM instrument’s psychometric properties in a sample of healthy, older Finnish adults. RM4-FM was translated and linguistically validated adhering to published guidelines. 65–75-year olds (n=102), completed the RM4-FM, the physical activity acceptance questionnaire (PAAQ) and sociodemographic characteristics questionnaires electronically. The RM4-FM was readministered one month after the initial assessment. RM4-FM translated well into Finnish. Motivation dimension scores were skewed towards high internal and low external motivation. A floor effect was confirmed in the external regulation dimension and a ceiling effect was confirmed in the identified regulation dimension. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated inadequacy of the four-dimension model. Separate assessment of each of the four motivation dimensions with Exploratory factor analysis showed unidimensionality for all dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis provided a best-fit model of three factors (influence of other people, intention of well-being and emotional aspect of motivation). Readministration of the instruments showed good test-retest reliability in all motivation dimensions. Female gender, higher education, and higher PAAQ score were associated with higher internal motivation and lower external motivation scores. The Finnish version of the RM4-FM instrument provides valid and reliable scores in assessing motivation for physical activity in healthy, older Finnish adults. The score distributions suggested shortages in the scale when evaluating internal motivation. The three-factor model of the RM4-FM provided more favorable structural validity compared to the original version.

Keywords: physical activeness; motivation (mental objects); older people; psychometrics; measuring instruments (indicators); reliability (science); validity

Free keywords: Self-determination theory; Psychometric properties; Patient-reported outcome measure

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 14:37