A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review
A Review of Occlusion as a Tool to Assess Attentional Demand in Driving (2023)

Kujala, T., Kircher, K., & Ahlström, C. (2023). A Review of Occlusion as a Tool to Assess Attentional Demand in Driving. Human Factors, 65(5), 792-808. https://doi.org/10.1177/00187208211010953

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Kujala, Tuomo; Kircher, Katja; Ahlström, Christer

Journal or series: Human Factors

ISSN: 0018-7208

eISSN: 1547-8181

Publication year: 2023

Publication date: 28/04/2021

Volume: 65

Issue number: 5

Pages range: 792-808

Publisher: SAGE Publications

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00187208211010953

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/75409


Objective: The aim of this review is to identify how visual occlusion contributes to our understanding of attentional demand and spare visual capacity in driving and the strengths and limitations of the method.
Background: The occlusion technique was developed by John W. Senders to evaluate the attentional demand of driving. Despite its utility, it has been used in-frequently in driver attention/inattention research.
Method: Visual occlusion studies in driving published between 1967 and 2020 were reviewed. The focus was on original studies in which the forward visual field was intermittently occluded while the participant was driving.
Results: Occlusion studies have shown that attentional demand varies across situations and drivers and have indicated environmental, situational, and inter- individual factors behind the variability. The occlusion technique complements eye tracking in being able to indicate the temporal requirements for and redundancy in visual information sampling. The proper selection of occlusion settings depends on the target of the research.
Conclusion: Although there are a number of occlusion studies looking at various aspects of attentional demand, we are still only beginning to understand how these demands vary, interact, and covary in naturalistic driving.
Application: The findings of this review have methodological and theoretical implications for human factors research and for the development of distraction monitoring and in- vehicle system testing. Distraction detection algorithms and testing guidelines should consider the variability in drivers’ situational and individual spare visual capacity.

Keywords: motor vehicle drivers; observation; attention; field of vision

Free keywords: minimum required attention; visual demand; peripheral vision; self-paced; system-paced

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2023-30-08 at 09:10