A1 Journal article (refereed)
Social Environmental Antecedents of Athletes’ Emotions (2021)

Ruiz, M. C., Appleton, P. R., Duda, J. L., Bortoli, L., & Robazza, C. (2021). Social Environmental Antecedents of Athletes’ Emotions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), Article 4997. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094997

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Ruiz, Montse C.; Appleton, Paul R.; Duda, Joan L.; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio

Journal or series: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

ISSN: 1661-7827

eISSN: 1660-4601

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 08/05/2021

Volume: 18

Issue number: 9

Article number: 4997

Publisher: MDPI AG

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094997

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/75486

Additional information: Correction: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136756


The coach-created motivational climate influences variations in athletes’ motivation and emotional experiences. The present study aimed to examine social environmental antecedents of athletes’ emotions. Participants (N = 262, 52% female, M age = 22.75 ± 6.92) completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of coach-created motivational climates, goal orientations, motivation regulations, and emotions. The mediation effects of goal orientations (i.e., task/ego) and motivation regulations (i.e., autonomous/controlled) on the relationship between motivational climate (i.e., empowering/disempowering) and emotions (i.e., happiness, excitement, anxiety, dejection, and anger) were examined. Structural equation modeling revealed positive direct effects of perceptions of an empowering motivational climate on happiness. Indirect effects of empowering climate to happiness and excitement via task orientation and autonomous motivation emerged. Perceptions of a disempowering climate positively predicted anxiety, dejection, and anger via ego orientation and controlled motivation. Overall, the findings have implications for coach education as they highlight the importance of creating more empowering environments and avoiding or reducing social comparisons.

Keywords: athletes; emotions; motivation (mental objects); motivation (activity); motivational climate; ambience; empowerment; coaches (occupations)

Free keywords: emotions; mediation; motivation; structural equation modeling

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 15:45