A1 Journal article (refereed)
Nutrition Knowledge Is Associated with Energy Availability and Carbohydrate Intake in Young Female Cross-Country Skiers (2021)

Kettunen, O., Heikkilä, M., Linnamo, V., & Ihalainen, J. K. (2021). Nutrition Knowledge Is Associated with Energy Availability and Carbohydrate Intake in Young Female Cross-Country Skiers. Nutrients, 13(6), Article 1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061769

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Kettunen, Oona; Heikkilä, Maria; Linnamo, Vesa; Ihalainen, Johanna K.

Journal or series: Nutrients

eISSN: 2072-6643

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 22/05/2021

Volume: 13

Issue number: 6

Article number: 1769

Publisher: MDPI AG

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061769

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/75935


The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training camp. Nutrition knowledge was assessed via a validated questionnaire. EA was optimal in 11% of athletes at home (mean 33.7 ± 9.6 kcal·kgFFM−1·d−1) and in 42% at camp (mean 40.3 ± 17.3 kcal·kgFFM−1·d−1). Most athletes (74%) failed to meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake at home (mean 5.0 ± 1.2 g·kg−1·d−1) and 63% failed to do so at camp (mean 7.1 ± 1.6 g·kg−1·d−1). The lower threshold of the pre-exercise carbohydrate recommendations was met by 58% and 89% of athletes while percentages were 26% and 89% within 1 h after exercise, at home and at camp, respectively. None of the athletes met the recommendations within 4 h after exercise. Nutrition knowledge was associated with EA at home (r = 0.52, p = 0.023), and with daily carbohydrate intake at home (r = 0.62, p = 0.005) and at camp (r = 0.52, p = 0.023). Carbohydrate intake within 1 and 4 h post-exercise at home was associated with better nutrition knowledge (r = 0.65, p = 0.003; r = 0.53, p = 0.019, respectively). In conclusion, young female cross-county skiers had difficulties meeting recommendations for optimal EA and carbohydrate intake. Better nutrition knowledge may help young athletes to meet these recommendations

Keywords: athletes; endurance sports; winter sports; skiers; nutritional behaviour; dietary guidelines; nutrients (animals and humans); proteins; carbohydrates

Free keywords: endurance athlete; macronutrient; periodized nutrition; protein; sports nutrition; winter sport

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 13:44