A1 Journal article (refereed)
Nutrition Knowledge Is Associated with Energy Availability and Carbohydrate Intake in Young Female Cross-Country Skiers (2021)

Kettunen, O., Heikkilä, M., Linnamo, V., & Ihalainen, J. K. (2021). Nutrition Knowledge Is Associated with Energy Availability and Carbohydrate Intake in Young Female Cross-Country Skiers. Nutrients, 13(6), Article 1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061769

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKettunen, Oona; Heikkilä, Maria; Linnamo, Vesa; Ihalainen, Johanna K.

Journal or seriesNutrients


Publication year2021

Publication date22/05/2021


Issue number6

Article number1769

PublisherMDPI AG

Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/75935


The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training camp. Nutrition knowledge was assessed via a validated questionnaire. EA was optimal in 11% of athletes at home (mean 33.7 ± 9.6 kcal·kgFFM−1·d−1) and in 42% at camp (mean 40.3 ± 17.3 kcal·kgFFM−1·d−1). Most athletes (74%) failed to meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake at home (mean 5.0 ± 1.2 g·kg−1·d−1) and 63% failed to do so at camp (mean 7.1 ± 1.6 g·kg−1·d−1). The lower threshold of the pre-exercise carbohydrate recommendations was met by 58% and 89% of athletes while percentages were 26% and 89% within 1 h after exercise, at home and at camp, respectively. None of the athletes met the recommendations within 4 h after exercise. Nutrition knowledge was associated with EA at home (r = 0.52, p = 0.023), and with daily carbohydrate intake at home (r = 0.62, p = 0.005) and at camp (r = 0.52, p = 0.023). Carbohydrate intake within 1 and 4 h post-exercise at home was associated with better nutrition knowledge (r = 0.65, p = 0.003; r = 0.53, p = 0.019, respectively). In conclusion, young female cross-county skiers had difficulties meeting recommendations for optimal EA and carbohydrate intake. Better nutrition knowledge may help young athletes to meet these recommendations

Keywordsathletesendurance sportswinter sportsskiersnutritional behaviourdietary guidelinesnutrients (animals and humans)proteinscarbohydrates

Free keywordsendurance athlete; macronutrient; periodized nutrition; protein; sports nutrition; winter sport

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 17:26