A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effect of Seasonal Storage on Single-Stem Bark Extractives of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) (2021)

Halmemies, E. S., Brännström, H. E., Nurmi, J., Läspä, O., & Alén, R. (2021). Effect of Seasonal Storage on Single-Stem Bark Extractives of Norway Spruce (Picea abies). Forests, 12(6), Article 736. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060736

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Halmemies, Eelis S.; Brännström, Hanna E.; Nurmi, Juha; Läspä, Otto; Alén, Raimo

Journal or series: Forests

eISSN: 1999-4907

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 04/06/2021

Volume: 12

Issue number: 6

Article number: 736

Publisher: MDPI

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060736

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/76376


Increasing the net value of forestry side-streams has both ecological as well as economic benefits for emerging biorefining industries. Spruce bark represents one of the nature’s abundant sources of valuable extractives. In this study, the impact of storage on the quality and quantity of Norway spruce (Picea abies) extractives was examined as a function of storage time, environmental conditions and season (i.e., winter or summer). The bark from stored spruce saw logs was extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) at 120 °C with hexane and water. The produced extracts were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The total amount of phenolics in the water extracts was evaluated by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, while the carbohydrate and lignin content of the extractive-free bark was estimated by acidic hydrolysis and acidic methanolysis. According to the results, storage season and temperature dramatically influenced both the chemical composition and degradation rate of bark extractives. After a storage period of 24 weeks, the winter-stored saw log bark retained 22% more hydrophilic extractives than the summer-stored bark. Lipophilic extractives, however, were 14% higher during the summer. Notably, the average amount of monomeric stilbenoids was 61% higher during the winter storage period. The initial total phenolic content in the water extracts was significantly higher during winter, but the degradation rate was about equal during winter and summer. The amount of cellulose in dry bark decreased from 17% to 11% and from 13% to 6% during winter and summer, respectively. By contrast, hemicelluloses increased from 17% to 26% and 15% to 30% during winter and summer, respectively. Overall, it was demonstrated that the seasonal factors of storage greatly affected the degradation rate of valuable spruce bark extractives, which should be considered in the planning stages of the raw materials procurement chain.

Keywords: biomass (industry); by-products; bark; Norway spruce; storage; degradation; naturally occurring substances; extraction (chemistry); high pressure liquid chromatography; gas chromatography

Free keywords: spruce bark; biomass storage; degradation; extraction; wood extractives; hydrophilic; lipophilic; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); gas chromatography (GC)

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-14-09 at 12:10