A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effect of Seasonal Storage on Single-Stem Bark Extractives of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) (2021)

Halmemies, E. S., Brännström, H. E., Nurmi, J., Läspä, O., & Alén, R. (2021). Effect of Seasonal Storage on Single-Stem Bark Extractives of Norway Spruce (Picea abies). Forests, 12(6), Article 736. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060736

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHalmemies, Eelis S.; Brännström, Hanna E.; Nurmi, Juha; Läspä, Otto; Alén, Raimo

Journal or seriesForests


Publication year2021

Publication date04/06/2021


Issue number6

Article number736


Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/76376


Increasing the net value of forestry side-streams has both ecological as well as economic benefits for emerging biorefining industries. Spruce bark represents one of the nature’s abundant sources of valuable extractives. In this study, the impact of storage on the quality and quantity of Norway spruce (Picea abies) extractives was examined as a function of storage time, environmental conditions and season (i.e., winter or summer). The bark from stored spruce saw logs was extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) at 120 °C with hexane and water. The produced extracts were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The total amount of phenolics in the water extracts was evaluated by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, while the carbohydrate and lignin content of the extractive-free bark was estimated by acidic hydrolysis and acidic methanolysis. According to the results, storage season and temperature dramatically influenced both the chemical composition and degradation rate of bark extractives. After a storage period of 24 weeks, the winter-stored saw log bark retained 22% more hydrophilic extractives than the summer-stored bark. Lipophilic extractives, however, were 14% higher during the summer. Notably, the average amount of monomeric stilbenoids was 61% higher during the winter storage period. The initial total phenolic content in the water extracts was significantly higher during winter, but the degradation rate was about equal during winter and summer. The amount of cellulose in dry bark decreased from 17% to 11% and from 13% to 6% during winter and summer, respectively. By contrast, hemicelluloses increased from 17% to 26% and 15% to 30% during winter and summer, respectively. Overall, it was demonstrated that the seasonal factors of storage greatly affected the degradation rate of valuable spruce bark extractives, which should be considered in the planning stages of the raw materials procurement chain.

Keywordsbiomass (industry)by-productsbarkNorway sprucestoragedegradationnaturally occurring substancesextraction (chemistry)high pressure liquid chromatographygas chromatography

Free keywordsspruce bark; biomass storage; degradation; extraction; wood extractives; hydrophilic; lipophilic; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); gas chromatography (GC)

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 20:25