A1 Journal article (refereed)
The Predictors of Literacy Skills among Monolingual and Bilingual Finnish-Swedish Children During First Grade (2022)

Vataja, P., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Aro, M., Westerholm, J., Risberg, A.-K., & Salmi, P. (2022). The Predictors of Literacy Skills among Monolingual and Bilingual Finnish-Swedish Children During First Grade. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 66(6), 960-976. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2021.1942191

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Vataja, Pia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Aro, Mikko; Westerholm, Jari; Risberg, Ann-Katrine; Salmi, Paula

Journal or series: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research

ISSN: 0031-3831

eISSN: 1470-1170

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 05/07/2021

Volume: 66

Issue number: 6

Pages range: 960-976

Publisher: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2021.1942191

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77013


The aim of the study was to examine which predictor variables are related to literacy skills among monolingual Swedish (n = 269) and bilingual Finnish–Swedish (n = 229) children at the first grade in the Swedish-speaking schools in Finland. The participants were assessed in phonological awareness, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), word recognition, reading fluency, and spelling. The results showed that RAN was the most significant predictor of reading and spelling skills in both language groups, and monolingual children performed significantly better in RAN. Moreover, letter knowledge predicted reading and spelling skills in both groups. However, no significant differences between language groups in reading and spelling skills were observed. The results emphasize the importance of interpreting the pre-literacy screening, especially with bilingual children.

Keywords: literacy; reading; monolingualism; bilingualism; bilingual schools; orthography; reading disorders; mother tongue; phonological awareness; children (age groups); predictability

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2023-05-09 at 10:21