G5 Doctoral dissertation (article)
Adaptive responses of aging bone to physical exercise : masters athletes and patients with hip fracture as a research model (2021)
Vanhenevan luuston vasteet liikuntaharjoitteluun : ikääntyvät urheilijat ja lonkkamurtumapotilaat tutkimusmallina

Suominen, T. (2021). Adaptive responses of aging bone to physical exercise : masters athletes and patients with hip fracture as a research model [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Jyväskylä. JYU Dissertations, 390. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-8676-6

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Suominen, Tuuli

eISBN: 978-951-39-8676-6

Journal or series: JYU Dissertations

eISSN: 2489-9003

Publication year: 2021

Number in series: 390

Number of pages in the book: 1 verkkoaineisto (109 sivua, 44 sivua useina numerointijaksoina, 6 numeroimatonta sivua)

Publisher: University of Jyväskylä

Place of Publication: Jyväskylä

Publication country: Finland

Publication language: English

Persistent website address: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-8676-6

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel


Physical function and physical loading, especially intensive osteogenic exercise, typically decrease with age, a phenomenon which likely contributes to age-related bone loss and a reduction in the osteogenic potential of exercise during aging. This study examined osteogenic responses to specific exercise among older adults representing the opposite ends of the physical function and bone health spectrum. Competitive male masters athletes aged 40-85 years participated in a randomized, controlled 20-week high-intensity strength and sprint training intervention (n=72) and in a 10-year follow-up (n=69). Men and women over age 60 years with a recent hip fracture (n=81) participated in a 12-month randomized controlled home-rehabilitation program. Tibial bone properties were assessed with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Physical function was measured with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and perceived difficulty in walking outdoors, and lean body mass (LBM) was measured with a bioimpedance device. Compared to the athletes maintaining their usual sprint training schedules, the 20-week intensified strength and sprint training program improved the mid-tibial cross-sectional geometry and strength of the athletes in the intervention group. Strength and sprint training continued over 10 years was associated with maintained distal tibia bone mass, density and strength, and improved mid-tibia bone mass and geometry. In the less-trained athletes, who had reduced their training load, the corresponding bone properties declined during the follow-up. The home-based rehabilitation program had no effect on the tibial bone properties of the older adults with hip fracture as compared to those receiving standard care. Lower physical function and lower LBM were, however, predictive of greater deterioration in distal tibia bone traits during the first year post fracture. This research suggests that regular high-intensity exercise maintains the ability of a healthy aging bone structure to adapt to increased loading and counteracts age-related loss in bone cross-sectional geometry, density and strength. In aging people, a sufficient level of muscular capacity and physical function seem to be essential for bone maintenance across the physical activity and bone health spectrum.

Keywords: ageing; physical training; skeletal system; hip; fractures; strength training; sprinting; middle age; master sports; home rehabilitation; jumping; physical functioning; strains and stresses; bone fractures; bone density; middle-aged persons; older people; strength of materials

Free keywords: BMD; bone strength; hip fracture; masters athlete; high-impact training; strength training; home-exercise; rehabilitation; older adult

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

Last updated on 2022-24-11 at 20:50