A1 Journal article (refereed)
Can foliar-applied nutrients improve caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed oil composition? (2021)

Lizarazo, C. I., Lampi, A.-M., & Mäkelä, P. S. A. (2021). Can foliar-applied nutrients improve caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed oil composition?. Industrial Crops and Products, 170, Article 113793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.113793

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLizarazo, Clara I.; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A.

Journal or seriesIndustrial Crops and Products



Publication year2021


Article number113793

PublisherElsevier BV

Publication countryNetherlands

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77381

Additional informationCorrigendum to this article, please see: Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 187, Part A, 2022, 115417, ISSN 0926-6690, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2022.115417 ; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2022.115417.


Caraway seeds contain between 0.5–7% essential oil, rich in monoterpenes that have a characteristic aroma and chemical properties. Caraway oil has several bioactive compounds that are of industrial importance, particularly for pharmaceutical and health care products. Carvone and limonene are the main terpenes present in caraway oil, which along with some unique fatty acids (i.e. petroselinic acid) determine caraway (Carum carvi L.) oil quality. Both terpenes are important raw materials for industrial applications and their concentration influences the price of caraway seed and oil, hence there is need for identifying management practices that may increase the concentration of these and other bioactive compounds to improve caraway seed oil quality. A field experiment with five treatments: a control and a series of foliar-applied micronutrients (either Cu, Mg, Mn or Zn was done to identify their potential to enhance caraway oil quality. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector were used to characterize oil quality. Our results indicate that while the micronutrient treatments have a significant effect on essential oil composition, both in carvone and limonene, such an effect was not found on all fatty acids but only in two of them—palmitoleic and vaccenic acid—, which were highest after the Mn treatment. Overall, the carvone content of the seeds decreased the least between years following Mn treatment. Mn treatment also caused an increase in limonene in the second year in contrast to the trend for all other treatments. The Mn foliar spray needs to be studied further to elucidate whether it could have a consistent positive effect on caraway oil seed quality upon adjusting dosage and spraying time.

Keywordsnaturally occurring substancesterpenesfatty acidsessential oilsspice plantscarawaynutrients (plants)fertilisation of plants

Free keywordsessential oil; carvone; limonene; fatty acids

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 19:56