A1 Journal article (refereed)
The emission reduction potential of electric transport modes in Finland (2021)

Jenu, S., Baumeister, S., Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, J., Manninen, A., & Paakkinen, M. (2021). The emission reduction potential of electric transport modes in Finland. Environmental Research Letters, 16(10), Article 104010. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac2440

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsJenu, Samppa; Baumeister, Stefan; Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, Jenni; Manninen, Aino; Paakkinen, Marko

Journal or seriesEnvironmental Research Letters


Publication year2021

Publication date07/09/2021


Issue number10

Article number104010

PublisherInstitute of Physics Publishing

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77919


The transportation sector has become the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One solution to mitigate the impacts is a shift towards electric modes. Where previous studies have only focused on the replacement of individual modes, our study presents a more holistic approach by comparing land-based, water-based and airborne transportation modes. We study the GHG emission reduction potentials of electric cars, buses, trains, ferries and aircraft in comparison to existing modes on 34 routes within Finland and across the Baltic Sea to Sweden and Estonia. By comparing the GHG emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) per passenger kilometer for each mode, we also consider the emissions generated from battery production as well as the differences in the energy mix from electricity production of the three studied countries. In addition to CO2-eq emissions per passenger kilometer, we also take real door-to-door travel times into account. Our study found that electric transportation modes possess great potential for emissions reduction. Nevertheless, depending on the energy mix used for electricity production, the emissions of electric transportation modes can exceed those of existing modes significantly. In addition, the emissions generated by battery production can have a significant share of the total emissions and should therefore always be considered. Finally, while also taking into account the door-to-door travel times, our study the great potential of electric aircraft to provide a less carbon intensive transportation option paired with short travel times starting on routes beyond 300 km where no high-speed rail exists as well as on routes across the water.

Keywordsroad trafficrail trafficshippingair trafficelectric vehiclesemissionsgreenhouse gasestravel time

Free keywordsModal shift; Electric transport modes; Electric aviation; Greenhouse gas emissions

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 20:04