A1 Journal article (refereed)
Diversity in CLIL as experienced by Finnish CLIL teachers and students : matters of equality and equity (2023)

Nikula, T., Skinnari, K., & Mård-Miettinen, K. (2023). Diversity in CLIL as experienced by Finnish CLIL teachers and students : matters of equality and equity. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 26(9), 1066-1079. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2022.2028125

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsNikula, Tarja; Skinnari, Kristiina; Mård-Miettinen, Karita

Journal or seriesInternational Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism



Publication year2023

Publication date28/01/2022


Issue number9

Pages range1066-1079


Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/79593


This article focuses on how Finnish CLIL teachers and students orient to and experience diversity in CLIL. The data consist of teacher and student interviews that were analysed using qualitative content analysis to identify recurrent themes with regard to diversity. The findings indicate that the theme of equality in the sense of ‘the same for all’ in both teaching, assessing and homework was readily brought up by both groups, reflecting the ethos of equality prevalent in Finnish education. Equity, however, was not similarly highlighted even though it is a guiding principle alongside equality in the Finnish Core Curriculum for Basic Education. Teachers were found reluctant to topicalise diversity, at least in the form of explicit differentiation. This applied especially to academic skills, with students’ different linguistic skills more readily addressed. Both teacher and student interviews construct CLIL students as high-achievers in comparison to peers in regular classrooms. The students, however, also criticised being treated as a homogenous group and expressed wishes for personalised support. In sum, the findings show tensions between maintaining equality and securing equity in that adherence to the same type of education for all may render invisible the varying competences, ways of learning and needs for support.

Keywordscontent and language integrated learningschool childrendiversityequality (values)individualisation (education)

Free keywordsCLIL in Finland; learner diversity; equality in education; equity in education

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-30-04 at 19:27