A1 Journal article (refereed)
Retirement as a predictor of physical functioning trajectories among older businessmen (2022)

Haapanen, M. J., Strandberg, T. E., Törmäkangas, T., von Bonsdorff, M. E., Strandberg, A. Y., & von Bonsdorff, M. B. (2022). Retirement as a predictor of physical functioning trajectories among older businessmen. BMC Geriatrics, 22(1), Article 279. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-022-03001-x

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHaapanen, Markus J.; Strandberg, Timo E.; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Strandberg, Arto Y.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.

Journal or seriesBMC Geriatrics


Publication year2022

Publication date04/04/2022


Issue number1

Article number279

PublisherBiomed Central

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/80553


Associations between retirement characteristics and consequent physical functioning (PF) are poorly understood, particularly in higher socioeconomic groups, where postponing retirement has had both positive and negative implications for PF.

Multiple assessments of PF, the first of which at the mean age of 73.3 years, were performed on 1709 men who were retired business executives and managers, using the RAND-36/SF-36 instrument, between 2000 and 2010. Questionnaire data on retirement age and type of pension was gathered in 2000. Five distinct PF trajectories were created using latent growth mixture modelling. Mortality- and covariate-adjusted multinomial regression models were used to estimate multinomial Odds Ratios (mOR) on the association between retirement characteristics and PF trajectories.

A one-year increase in retirement age was associated with decreased likelihood of being classified in the ‘consistently low’ (fully adjusted mOR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.70, 0.97; P = 0.007), ‘intermediate and declining’ (mOR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.83, 0.96; P = 0.002), and ‘high and declining’ (mOR = 0.92; 95%CI = 0.87, 0.98; P = 0.006) trajectories, relative to the ‘intact’ PF trajectory. Compared to old age pensioners, disability pensioners were more likely to be classified in the ‘consistently low’ (mOR = 23.77; 95% CI 2.13, 265.04; P = 0.010), ‘intermediate and declining’ (mOR = 8.24; 95%CI = 2.58, 26.35; P < 0.001), and ‘high and declining’ (mOR = 2.71; 95%CI = 1.17, 6.28; P = 0.020) PF trajectories, relative to the ‘intact’ PF trajectory.

Among executives and managers, older age at retirement was associated with better trajectories of PF in old age. Compared to old age pensioners, those transitioning into disability and early old age pensions were at risk of having consistently lower PF in old age.

Keywordsolder peoplemenentrepreneursretirementretirement agephysical functioning

Free keywordsage at retirement; type of pension; physical functioning

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Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 21:07