A1 Journal article (refereed)
Fourth grade students’ computational thinking in pair programming with scratch : A holistic case analysis (2022)

Fagerlund, J., Vesisenaho, M., & Häkkinen, P. (2022). Fourth grade students’ computational thinking in pair programming with scratch : A holistic case analysis. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 33, Article 100511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2022.100511

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Fagerlund, Janne; Vesisenaho, Mikko; Häkkinen, Päivi

Journal or series: International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction

ISSN: 2212-8689

eISSN: 2212-8697

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 22/06/2022

Volume: 33

Article number: 100511

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: Netherlands

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2022.100511

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/83825


This article explores a new but expanding research topic: primary school students’ computational thinking (CT) in the context of programming in pairs. The data comprises four fourth-grade student dyads using Scratch, a block-based programming tool, for two open-ended creative programming sessions. We sought insight into how the dyads put four intertwined CT dimensions—planning; iteration; collaboration, social interactions, and remixing; and debugging—into practice. To examine these dimensions, the data was analysed systematically in three overlapping layers: what happens on the computer screen (design events), who uses the computer (computer control), and what kind of talk is occurring (talk). The temporal viewpoint in the multi-layered analysis revealed and enriched holistic understanding of key computational and social factors, such as initial project planning methods, programming tendencies, and pair programming roles that essentially shaped the dyads’ design processes. Next to opportunities for more focal research in CT education, the results provide especially evidence-based pedagogical knowledge for supporting students’ open-ended programming in the classroom. In particular, concrete suggestions for supporting open-ended project planning, balancing between self-directed design and instructional support during programming, and promoting shared design processes in pair programming are provided based on the findings.

Keywords: Scratch; elementary education; programming

Free keywords: computational thinking; pair programming

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-30-08 at 09:54