A1 Journal article (refereed)
Fourth grade students’ computational thinking in pair programming with scratch : A holistic case analysis (2022)

Fagerlund, J., Vesisenaho, M., & Häkkinen, P. (2022). Fourth grade students’ computational thinking in pair programming with scratch : A holistic case analysis. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 33, Article 100511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2022.100511

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsFagerlund, Janne; Vesisenaho, Mikko; Häkkinen, Päivi

Journal or seriesInternational Journal of Child-Computer Interaction



Publication year2022

Publication date22/06/2022


Article number100511


Publication countryNetherlands

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/83825


This article explores a new but expanding research topic: primary school students’ computational thinking (CT) in the context of programming in pairs. The data comprises four fourth-grade student dyads using Scratch, a block-based programming tool, for two open-ended creative programming sessions. We sought insight into how the dyads put four intertwined CT dimensions—planning; iteration; collaboration, social interactions, and remixing; and debugging—into practice. To examine these dimensions, the data was analysed systematically in three overlapping layers: what happens on the computer screen (design events), who uses the computer (computer control), and what kind of talk is occurring (talk). The temporal viewpoint in the multi-layered analysis revealed and enriched holistic understanding of key computational and social factors, such as initial project planning methods, programming tendencies, and pair programming roles that essentially shaped the dyads’ design processes. Next to opportunities for more focal research in CT education, the results provide especially evidence-based pedagogical knowledge for supporting students’ open-ended programming in the classroom. In particular, concrete suggestions for supporting open-ended project planning, balancing between self-directed design and instructional support during programming, and promoting shared design processes in pair programming are provided based on the findings.

KeywordsScratchelementary educationprogramming

Free keywordscomputational thinking; pair programming

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 20:26