A1 Journal article (refereed)
Midlife cardiovascular health factors as predictors of retirement age, work-loss years, and years spent in retirement among older businessmen (2023)

Haapanen, M. J., Törmäkangas, T., von Bonsdorff, M. E., Strandberg, A. Y., Strandberg, T. E., & von Bonsdorff, M. B. (2023). Midlife cardiovascular health factors as predictors of retirement age, work-loss years, and years spent in retirement among older businessmen. Scientific Reports, 13, Article 16526. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-43666-x

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Publication details

All authors or editorsHaapanen, Markus J.; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Strandberg, Arto Y.; Strandberg, Timo E.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.

Journal or seriesScientific Reports


Publication year2023

Publication date02/10/2023


Article number16526

PublisherNature Publishing Group

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/89380


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of premature retirement. However, the relationship between CVD risk factors and workforce participation is not well known. We studied the relationship between midlife CVD risk, age at retirement, work-loss years, and survival in retirement. Middle-aged Finnish men (initial n = 3490, mean age = 47.8 years) were assessed for CVD risk factors and general health in the 1970s. They worked as business executives and provided information on their retirement status in the year 2000. Survival was followed up to the 9th decade of life with a follow-up of up to 44 years. Work-loss years were calculated as death or retirement occurring at age ≤ 65 years. Smoking, body mass index, and alcohol use were used as covariates, excluding models of CVD risk, which were adjusted for alcohol use only. Higher risk of 10-year fatal CVD was associated with 0.32 more years (relative risk < 1 vs. 1, covariate-adjusted β = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.53) of work-loss. Higher risk of 5-year incident (covariate-adjusted time-constant HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.19, 1.47) and 10-year fatal (covariate-adjusted time-dependent HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.30, 1.85) CVD in midlife were associated with fewer years spent in retirement. Poorer self-rated health and physical fitness and higher levels of triglycerides were associated with increased hazard of earlier retirement, more work-loss years, and fewer years spent in retirement. Poorer health and greater midlife CVD risk may be associated with earlier exit from the workforce and fewer years spent in retirement. Management of CVD risk in midlife may support people to work longer.

Keywordscardiovascular diseasesolder peopleretirement ageretirementworking liferisk factors

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Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 01:26