A1 Journal article (refereed)
The Aversive Musical Experience Scale (AMES) : Measuring individual differences in the intensity of music-evoked aversion (2024)

Vuoskoski, J. K., & Peltola, H.-R. (2024). The Aversive Musical Experience Scale (AMES) : Measuring individual differences in the intensity of music-evoked aversion. Psychology of Music, OnlineFirst. https://doi.org/10.1177/03057356241239336

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsVuoskoski, Jonna K.; Peltola, Henna-Riikka

Journal or seriesPsychology of Music



Publication year2024

Publication date04/04/2024


PublisherSAGE Publications

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/94460


Strongly disliked music has the capacity to evoke strong negative emotions and physical sensations—at least in some listeners. Although previous (qualitative) studies on disliked music have provided valuable descriptions of listeners’ experiences, more generalizable approaches are needed for understanding individual differences in the intensity of music-evoked aversive experiences. This study set out to explore these individual differences by developing a standardized questionnaire to measure the intensity of aversive musical experiences, the Aversive Musical Experience Scale (AMES). Furthermore, we explored the hypothesized predictors and potential underlying mechanisms (such as emotional contagion and a general sensitivity to sounds) by measuring trait emotional contagion, misophonia, tendency to experience autonomous sensory meridian responses (ASMR) and frissons, and personality. Based on the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, a final 18-item version of AMES was constructed, comprising three subscales: Sensations, Social, and Features. Misophonia and emotional contagion emerged as the strongest predictors of global AMES and its subscales. Furthermore, the personality traits of neuroticism, agreeableness, and openness to experience, as well as age and musical expertise emerged as significant predictors of at least one of the scales. The implications and limitations of the findings are discussed with respect to sound-sensitivity, music-induced emotions, and personality theory.


Free keywordsmusic listening; negative emotions; psychometrics; individual differences; personality

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2024

Preliminary JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 00:05