A1 Journal article (refereed)
Heterogeneous trajectories of perceived stress and their associations with active leisure : a longitudinal study during the first year of COVID-19 (2024)

Kulbin, K., Jõgi, A.-L., Pulver, A., & Kask, K. (2024). Heterogeneous trajectories of perceived stress and their associations with active leisure : a longitudinal study during the first year of COVID-19. Frontiers in Public Health, 12, Article 1327966. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2024.1327966

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKulbin, Karel; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Pulver, Aleksander; Kask, Kristjan

Journal or seriesFrontiers in Public Health


Publication year2024

Publication date09/05/2024


Article number1327966

PublisherFrontiers Media SA

Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/94853


Introduction: There is a plethora of literature on the dynamics of mental health indicators throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, yet research is scarce on the potential heterogeneity in the development of perceived stress. Furthermore, there is a paucity of longitudinal research on whether active leisure engagement, which typically is beneficial in reducing stress, might have similar benefits during times of major disruption. Here we aimed to extend previous work by exploring the dynamics of change in stress and coping, and the associations with active leisure engagement over the first year of COVID-19.

Methods: Data from 439 adults (Mage = 45, SD = 13) in Estonia who participated in a longitudinal online study were analyzed. The participants were assessed at three timepoints: April–May 2020; November–December 2020; and April–May 2021.

Results: Mean stress and coping levels were stable over time. However, latent profile analysis identified four distinct trajectories of change in stress and coping, involving resilient, stressed, recovering, and deteriorating trends. Participants belonging to the positively developing stress trajectories reported higher active leisure engagement than those belonging to the negatively developing stress trajectories.

Discussion: These findings highlight the importance of adopting person-centered approaches to understand the diverse experiences of stress, as well as suggest the promotion of active leisure as a potentially beneficial coping resource, in future crises.

KeywordsCOVID-19stress (biological phenomena)leisureworkwell-beingwell-being at work

Free keywordsperceived stress; coping; active leisure; person-centered approach; COVID-19 pandemic

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2024

Preliminary JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 00:46