A1 Journal article (refereed)
Menopausal symptoms and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged women : A cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 4-year follow-up (2023)

Hyvärinen, M., Karvanen, J., Juppi, H.-K., Karppinen, J. E., Tammelin, T. H., Kovanen, V., Aukee, P., Sipilä, S., Rantalainen, T., & Laakkonen, E. K. (2023). Menopausal symptoms and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged women : A cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 4-year follow-up. Maturitas, 174, 39-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2023.05.004

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHyvärinen, Matti; Karvanen, Juha; Juppi, Hanna-Kaarina; Karppinen, Jari E.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Aukee, Pauliina; Sipilä, Sarianna; Rantalainen, Timo; Laakkonen, Eija K.

Journal or seriesMaturitas



Publication year2023

Publication date23/05/2023


Pages range39-47

PublisherElsevier BV

Publication countryIreland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/87605


To study associations of menopausal symptoms with cardiometabolic risk factors.

Study design
A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of a representative population sample of 1393 women aged 47–55 years with a sub-sample of 298 followed for four years. The numbers of vasomotor, psychological, somatic or pain, and urogenital menopausal symptoms were ascertained at baseline through self-report. Their associations with cardiometabolic risk factors were studied using linear regression and linear mixed-effect models. Models were adjusted for age, menopausal status, body mass index, the use of hormonal preparations, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Main outcome measures
Cardiometabolic risk factors included total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, total and android fat mass, and physical activity.

All cholesterol and fat mass measures had modest positive associations with menopausal symptoms. The number of vasomotor symptoms, in particular, was associated with total cholesterol (B = 0.13 mmol/l, 95 % CI [0.07, 0.20]; 0.15 mmol/l [0.02, 0.28]) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.08 mmol/l [0.03, 0.14]; 0.12 mmol/l [0.01, 0.09]) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. However, these associations disappeared after adjusting for confounders. The number of symptoms was not associated with blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and physical activity. Menopausal symptoms at baseline did not predict the changes in the risk factors during the follow-up.

Menopausal symptoms may not be independently associated with cardiometabolic risk, and they do not seem to predict the changes in risk factors during the menopausal transition.

Keywordsageingwomenmenopausesymptomsperspiration (activity)cardiovascular diseasesmetabolic syndromerisk factorsbody compositionobesitycross-sectional researchlongitudinal research

Free keywordsmenopause; night sweats; hot flashes; cardiovascular disease; obesity; inactivity

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-15-05 at 13:12