A1 Journal article (refereed)
Dualities of digital services : everyday digital services as positive and negative contributors to customer well-being (2024)

Kemppainen, T., & Paananen, T. E. (2024). Dualities of digital services : everyday digital services as positive and negative contributors to customer well-being. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-03-2023-0075

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKemppainen, Tiina; Paananen, Tiina Elina

Journal or seriesJournal of Service Theory and Practice



Publication year2024

Publication date19/02/2024



Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/93772


This study examines the dualities of digital services – that is, how customers’ favorite everyday digital services can positively and negatively contribute to their well-being. Thus, the study describes the meanings of favorite digital services as part of customers’ everyday lives and the types of well-being to which such services can contribute.

We used a qualitative research approach through semi-structured interviews conducted in 2021 to collect data from 14 young adults (22–31 years old) who actively used digital services in their daily lives.

Our findings revealed that customers’ favorite everyday digital services can contribute to their mental well-being, social well-being, and intellectual well-being. Within these three dimensions of well-being, we identified nine dualities of digital services that describe their positive and negative contributions: (1) digital escapism versus digital disruption, (2) digital relaxation versus digital stress, (3) digital empowerment versus digital subjugation, (4) digital augmentation versus digital emptiness, (5) digital socialization versus digital isolation, (6) digital togetherness versus digital exclusion, (7) digital self-expression versus digital pressure, (8) digital learning versus digital dependence, and (9) digital inspiration versus digital stagnation.

Practical implications
These findings suggest that everyday digital services have the potential to contribute to customer well-being in various aspects – both positively and negatively – accentuating the need for service providers to decipher the impacts of their offerings on well-being. Indeed, understanding the relationship between digital services and customer well-being can help companies tailor their services to customers’ needs. Companies that prioritize customer well-being not only benefit their customers but also create sustainable growth opportunities in the long run. Further, companies can use the derived information in service design to develop marketing strategies that emphasize the positive impacts of their digital services on customer well-being.

Although prior transformative service studies have investigated the well-being of multiple stakeholders, such studies have focused on services related to the physical and healthcare domains. Consequently, the role of everyday digital services as contributors to customer well-being is an under-researched topic. In addition, the concept of well-being and its various dimensions has received limited attention in previous service research. By investigating everyday digital services and their multidimensional contribution to customer well-being, this study broadens the perspective on well-being within TSR and aids in refining a more precise conceptualization.

Keywordselectronic servicesonline serviceseverydaycustomer experiencewell-beingcustomer orientationservice design

Free keywordsdigital services; everyday services; customer well-being; transformative service research; customer-dominant logic

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Preliminary JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-01-03 at 10:27