A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review
Unveiling the Mysteries of Dyslexia : Lessons Learned from the Prospective Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (2021)

Lohvansuu, K., Torppa, M., Ahonen, T., Eklund, K., Hämäläinen, J. A., Leppänen, P. H. T., & Lyytinen, H. (2021). Unveiling the Mysteries of Dyslexia : Lessons Learned from the Prospective Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Brain Sciences, 11(4), Article 427. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040427

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLohvansuu, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

Journal or seriesBrain Sciences


Publication year2021

Publication date27/03/2021


Issue number4

Article number427

PublisherMDPI AG

Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/74937


This paper reviews the observations of the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD). The JLD is a prospective family risk study in which the development of children with familial risk for dyslexia (N = 108) due to parental dyslexia and controls without dyslexia risk (N = 92) were followed from birth to adulthood. The JLD revealed that the likelihood of at-risk children performing poorly in reading and spelling tasks was fourfold compared to the controls. Auditory insensitivity of newborns observed during the first week of life using brain event-related potentials (ERPs) was shown to be the first precursor of dyslexia. ERPs measured at six months of age related to phoneme length identification differentiated the family risk group from the control group and predicted reading speed until the age of 14 years. Early oral language skills, phonological processing skills, rapid automatized naming, and letter knowledge differentiated the groups from ages 2.5–3.5 years onwards and predicted dyslexia and reading development, including reading comprehension, until adolescence. The home environment, a child’s interest in reading, and task avoidance were not different in the risk group but were found to be additional predictors of reading development. Based on the JLD findings, preventive and intervention methods utilizing the association learning approach have been developed.

Keywordslanguage developmentreading disordersdyslexiaheritabilitydomestic environmentlongitudinal research

Free keywordsbrain event-related potentials (ERPs); language development; dyslexia; home literacy environment; intervention; longitudinal study; prospective family study; reading fluency; reading development; reading difficulties

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 18:42